A PRAGMATIC STUDY OF DECEPTION IN AMERICAN POLITICIAN’S SPEECH
Deception is used to refer to a complex social behavior that involves a set of higher reasoning functions. So, the research aims to analyze deception in the utterance of both politicians Biden and Trump speeches within the framework of pragmatic analysis. Deception has been given little attention from previous researchers especially from pragmatic perspective, therefore, this paper attempts to fill this gap by answering the following questions: (1) what are the main types and sub-types of deception that are used by Biden and Trump throughout their trip to win the elections and the way they want to conceal the truth of each other? (2) Which speech acts are more frequently employed by both competitors in elections? (3) How are Grice’s maxims are utilized by both politicians in their speeches about the elections?
So, this study adopts Searle (1969) as a model to analyze the concept of deception pragmatically. Therefore, it attempts to fulfill the following aims: (1) exploring the main types and sub-types of deception in Biden and Trump’s political speech. (2) Identifying the more used speech acts in Biden and Trump’s speech. (3) Clarifying how Biden and Trump cooperative with the maxims in their speeches. According to the aims mentioned above, it is hypothesized that: (1) different types and sub-types of deception are used through which deception in Biden and Trump’s speeches. (2) Representative and expressive speech acts are more frequently used by both politicians. (3)Some Grice’s maxims are deliberately violated by Trump and Biden such as Quality, quantity and manner.