SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON ACHIEVING FOOD SECURITY SAUDI ARABIA AS A MODEL FOR THE PERIOD 2004- 2020*
Agricultural development in the Arab world holds a prominent place in many development programs as well as economic and social reform. Most Arab states, including the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, have given great and common interest in this issue since the seventies until the present century where a group of Arab institutions were established to support agricultural development and enhance food security for the Arab world as it owns a large livestock wealth that needs development and attention in its subject, and the large fluctuations in food prices have played an important role in the rise in the value of food imports during the recent years, i.e. from 2019 until now due to the spread of the virus of (COVID-19) which negatively affected food security of large number of states importing agricultural materials. The weakness of agricultural production, compared to the demand resulting from population growth in the Arab world, leads to resorting to imports to meet the food needs of the population as agricultural exports constitute only a small percentage of total exports. In order to understand the reasons for the inability of the Arab states to achieve sustainable agricultural development that helps to achieve food security, this research deals with a review of the theoretical concept of sustainable agricultural development and food security and from studying the experience of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as a sample of the Arab states through the presentation, analysis and measurement of the impact of some indicators of sustainable agricultural development on some food security indicators, the conclusions and recommendations will be considered in developing the sustainable agricultural sector in order to achieve food security in the Arab world and in general where the most important finding concluded by the researchers is that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has followed a number of successful methods in preserving soil, environment, water resources, pastures regulation, forests protection as well as combating desertification. The researchers recommended, in general to all Arab states, through this research, the need to follow modern methods in terms of preserving the soil, environment and water resources as well as combating desertification and getting rid of old farming methods to achieve better agricultural production that does not deplete natural resources to obtain the self-sufficiency of each country in order to achieve its food security.