METAPOETIC, LOVE, CHILDHOOD, AND TOPOGRAPHICAL AESTHETICS IN THE POETRY OF TAUFIQ RAFAT: AN INTERTEXTUAL STUDY
Intertextuality, a literary term coined by Julia Kristeva, is the explicit or implicit presence of other texts in the text at hand. Adapting on Maikhail Bakhtin’s concept of language as dialogic, Kristeva asserts that the literary texts are not personal or isolated constructions rather they are the contributors in the pre-existent literary traditions which are always in the process of progress. The meaning making of any text, hence, is made through its intertextual links with other texts of the literary tradition instead of autobiographical or textual approach. Four major types of intertextuality are used as framework in this paper. Macro intertextuality is the explicit reference, micro the implicit reference, write back the reaction to the mainstream tradition, and theory of quotation the borrowing of other’s quotation sans quotation marks from other texts. Taufiq Rafat’s poetry is not the expression of an isolated soul rather it is the combination of all the European, Indian, and American readings he had. However, this paper attempts to explore the aforementioned types of intertextuality in Taufiq Rafat’s four selected poems from his anthologies Arrival of the Monsoon: Collected Poems (1947-78) and Half Moon: Poems (1979-83) with British counter parts. The selected four poems – Bird from Porlock, The Time to Love, At the Service Station, and the Positive Region – belong to four traditions of poetry, i. e., metapoetry, love poetry, childhood poetry, and topographical poetry respectively.