AN OVERVIEW OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL IN AFGHANISTAN (1913-1940)
This article discusses the development of the novel genre in Afghanistan, during the first three decades of its emergence which starts in the second decade of 20th century. It emerged after the translation of European novels in Dari and Pashto languages of Afghanistan. The article discusses various novels in Dari and Pashto languages that were written and published in Afghanistan during 1910s and 1940s.The article describes the various categories of novels, including translated novels, creative novels, incomplete novels, published novels, unpublished novels, and novels published in installments in newspapers and magazines. The article also presents a chronological order of the development of the novel in Afghanistan. The article provides information on the Dari translations of the novels of Jules Verne, translated into Dari language by Mahmud Beg Tarzi. The article also mentions the first creative novel in Afghanistan, "Jihad-e-Akbar wa Asghar." One of the novels discussed is Jashn-i Istiqlal dar Bolivia authored by Murtaza Ahmad Muhammadzai, originally written in English and published in Aman-e-Afghan newspaper in serials. Zinat, a historical novel by Nur Muhammad Alizad, Pata Mina (Hidden Love) by Burhanuddin Kashkaki, Pa Pata da Pato Platane (Secretly Seeking the Hidden Ones) also by Burhanuddin Kashkaki, Dwa Sara Mayen Zrona (Two Loving Hearts) by Muhammad Rafiq Qani, and Be Tarbiyata Zway (Untrained Son) by Noor Muhammad Taraki, are other novels that have been discussed in this article. Among these novels, the creative ones emphasize education, training, modernity, and the cultural and social practices of Afghanistan in that era. In previous studies the development of Dari novels and Pashto novels have been separately dealt by scholars which does not show an overall development of the novel in Afghanistan but this study presented an assessment of the genre of novel in Afghanistan during first three decades regardless of languages. This study is a systematic literature review for which qualitative content analysis method has been employed for exploring themes, patterns and meanings.