• Tahira Jabeen
  • Abida Anwar
  • Nadeem Haider Bukhari


The study explores transitivity in the text of the last address of Prophet Muhammad PBUH; delivered in Makkah (Saudi Arabia),  on 9th Dhu-al-Hajj 10 AH  in Uranah valley of Mount Arafat during the Islamic pilgrimage. The study is an analysis of the address on the basis of Systematic Functional Grammar (SFG) introduced by Michael Halliday. The study examines Transitivity; one of the aspects of Lexico Grammar. Data for the analysis of transitivity have been obtained from the text of the address, available online, and through reading and re-reading, the text was segmented into clauses then quantitative as well as qualitative analysis was conducted. The analysis explains language structure and functional meaning based on taxonomy of processes. The structure of language of last address of Prophet Muhammad manipulates certain concepts and meanings which are explicitly not present in the text. The study concludes that the highest proportion in the text is of relational process with 29.85%. Mental process came a bit distant with 28.35%, material process contributed 26.8% of the text. Behavioral, existential and verbal processes have an overall representation of 5.97%, 4.47% and 4.47% respectively. The occurrence of verbal and existential processes was the least in the text. Transitivity analysis of last address identified that the Prophet Muhammad’s real purpose was to make His audience the man of attributes meet the challenges and succeed in the life. He also used mental and material process in a significant and fair proportion to make his audience cognizant and conscious of actions. The study fills the gap of linguistic study of religious text based on SFG. The research will function as a torch bearer for future studies regarding religious text on the basis of SFG.


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How to Cite

Tahira Jabeen, Abida Anwar, & Nadeem Haider Bukhari. (2023). TRANSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF THE LAST ADDRESS OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD PBUH. PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology, 19(3), 1873-1887. Retrieved from