Identification of Human Resources Development Practices and Working Motivation in 21st Century Business Competition


  • Mardhiah
  • Sitti Nur Alam
  • Eko Listiwikono
  • Sri Hapsari Wijayanti
  • Achmad Nur Komari


Human resources management, Staff recruitment, Training and promoting, Competitiveness and advantage, Enterprise organizations.


This study identified the role of human resource development and management practices and work motivation in 21st-century business competition. Management and leadership in human resources, in particular the embodiment of competitiveness in industry and companies, inparticular on important issues directly related to HR management, training and staffing, work motivation, attractiveness and motivation, recruitment and wages, employee recruitment and awards and salaries, expenses and holidays and recognition of power competition between the corporate sector. The entire study identifies the strategy and management of human resource evolution from various literature sources and international published journals that critically discuss concepts, theories, frameworks to practice. Furthermore, we focus on HR management's role in organizations and companies gaining competitive advantage and innovation in the 21st century, analyzed in terms of theory and strategy. Our data can be found in international journals of industrial business organizations. We analyze in depth under the guidance of the phenomenological approach to find answers to these study questions without neglecting the study findings' validity and reliability. So we can mention the results, among others; the average company has prioritized the treatment of their human resources for various positive reasons for the advancement of the company and staff, consumers, and even the company's environment. We hope that this result will be useful for many parties. 


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How to Cite

Mardhiah, Sitti Nur Alam, Eko Listiwikono, Sri Hapsari Wijayanti, & Achmad Nur Komari. (2021). Identification of Human Resources Development Practices and Working Motivation in 21st Century Business Competition. PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology, 18(1), 3626-3636. Retrieved from