LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION IN THE CHINESE AND PERSIAN PAINTINGS (YUAN-SONG/ ĪL-KHĀNID MONGOLS ERAS)
Cultural relations between Persia and China grew even closer after the Mongol conquest of both countries in the 13th century, when the Īl-Khānids came to power. Mongol rulers were also affected by Chinese art and cultural heritage; it then transferred to Iran by political, commercial, and then cultural relations. So they prepared the conditions for mutual artistic inspirations, especially in painting. Since the illustrated Persian paintings clearly demonstrate foreign influences, including the culture of different nations, significantly China's cultural impact on Iran, the need for this investigation becomes more apparent in the period.
The aim of this study is to analyze and describe the manifestation of landscape in the Chinese and the Īl-Khānids paintings and focuses on the study of the similarities and differences of these styles and symbols. For this purpose, two main elements have to be investigated: the elements of Natural landscape in Chinese and Persian paintings in the Yuan and Song/ Īl-Khānids eras and the transmission of similar features. The authors suggest that the Cultural Adaptation Process is both creativity and genius development factor and a factor in the art social integration; for that reason, it has an importance. The result shows there were two ways to convey the style and techniques of Chinese landscape painting. One way is to copy blindly, and another way is a combination of deformed elements and derivation of indigenous features in paintings. Chinese's myriad cultural influences have led to a wide array of the new style paintings in the Īl-Khānid Mongols eras, but the creativity of the Persian artists was also involved in creating the new and eclectic style as well.