• Azra Qadir


Pakistan consists of geographically four constituent units and Federal tribal areas. These constituent units comprising the federation are of unequal sizes due to population and land sizes.

             1973 constitution is the results of compromises. This constitution introduced bicameral system, legislature in the country. The power of the provinces and the federal government were defined by the constitution and the legislature.

Part (V) Chapter 1 of the constitution, Art 141 to 144 explains the distribution of legislative powers between Federal and Provincial laws.

Chapter 2, Art 145 to 152 explains the Administrative Relations between Federation and the Provinces. These articles also explain the inter-provincial trade and acquisition of land for Federal purposes.

              Chapter 3, Special provisions relating to institutions of the council of common interests. Art 153, National Economic Council. Art 156, Electricity. Art 157, Natural Gas. Art 158, Broadcasting and Telecasting. Art 159, Constitutional Amendments 8th, 13th, 17th and the landmark 18th amendment the balance of power in the federation, Parliamentary original nature of the constitution. This amendment empowers the provinces and promotes co-operation and confidence between centre and provincial relations. But due to the current critical situation of Covid-19, change the world relations, economy and terrorist activities against state and communities. Government takes to step up for new administrative units to solve the problems of all the neglected areas and people of the Federation.




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How to Cite

Azra Qadir. (2021). ISSUES OF FEDERATION AND CONSTITUTIONALISM IN PAKISTAN. PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt / Egyptology, 18(7), 788-792. Retrieved from